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Facultade de Ciencias
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Mestrado Universitario en Bioloxía Molecular , Celular e Xenética
 Subjects
  Immunology
   Contents
Topic Sub-topic
The theoretical course program - Subtopics of the theoretical course program


Topic 1. Introdución to the Immunology..

- A brief history
Topic 2. Components of the immune system. - Immune System Cells: genesis and lineages. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs: structure and function. Lymphocyte circulation: Cellular traffic and involved molecules.
Topic 3. The innate immune system. - Concept. Features. Physical, chemical and biological defense barriers. Cellular components. Humoral components. Receptors of the innate immune system. Effectory mechanisms of innate immunity. Phagocytosis and inflammation: phases, effector cells and molecules involved. Interactions with the adaptive response.
Topic 4. The adaptive / specific immune system

- Concept. Characteristics and properties (specificity, clonal nature, adaptability, memory). Cellular components: B lymphocytes and T antigen presenting cells. Phases of adaptive mechanism. Antigen recognition: T surface receptor (TCR) and B (BCR) cells. Phase of cell activation and proliferation: Mechanism of clonal selection and expansion. Phase of cell differentiation: Differentiation of T and B lymphocyte,. Effectory phase. Immune mechanisms: cellular immunity. Humoral immunity.
Topic 5. Antigens / immunogens / haptens. - Antigen concept. Chemical nature. Properties. Immunogen concept. Epitope concept: nature and types. Haptens and hapten-carrier conjugates. Types of antigens: conformational and sequential, T dependent and independent. Multivalent, Superantigens, Autoantigen and Mitogens. .
Topic 6: Antibodies (immunoglobulins). - Concept. Molecular structure: characters. Variable regions and antigen binding. Constant regions and effectory function. Classification (classes, subclasses). Expression of membrane and secreted immunoglobulins. Biological functions and distribution of antibodies.
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Topic 7. antigen-antibody reactions - The paratope structure. Complementarity between antigen and antibody. Characteristics of the antigen-antibody binding: affinity, avidity and specificity. Biological meaning: neutralization, opsonization, complement activation, cell cytotoxicity antibody-dependent (ADCC)..
Topic 8. Citoquinas. - Concept. General Properties. Mechanisms of biological action. Cytokine receptors: types. Regulating effects of the cytokines. Functional classification: cytokines that mediate immune responses..

Topic 9. The system of the complement
- Concept. Components. Nomenclature. Activation of the complement system: Alternative pathway. Classical pathway. Lectin pathway. Lytic pathway. Receptor proteins of the complement. Regulation. Biological functions.
Topic 10. The molecules of Histocompatibility. - Concept. Major histocompatibility complex (CPH / MHC). Histocompatibility genes: Properties. Structure of histocompatibility molecules: Class I and II. Binding peptide-MHC molecules: Characters. Polymorphism of the MHC molecules on their binding peptides. Expression of MHC molecules. Biological functions..
Topic 11. The Processing and presentation of antigens. - The antigen presenting cells: function. Recognition of peptide antigen. Antigen processing (degradation): endocytic (extracellular) and cytosolic (intracellular) pathways. Assembly of the peptides to MHC molecules. Presentation and expression of complex peptide-class I / II on the surface of the CPA.
Topic 12. Development, maturation, activation and differentiation of B lymphocytes
- Development and maturation in the bone marrow. Differentiation of B lymphocytes antigen independent: Expression of surface markers (CD19, 10). The functional antigen receptor (BCR). Maturation of B cells: mechanisms of negative and positive clonal selection. Production of virgin mature B lymphocytes. Migration to2nd lymphoid organs antigen-dependent: Activation of B lymphocyte by antigen. Structure and function of the BCR receptor. B cell proliferation through activation of T helper lymphocytes (CD4). Differentiation into plasma cells. B cell migration into primary follicles: Differentiation of B cells activated in memory B cells

Topic 13. Chap.13. Development, maturation, activation and differentiation of T lymphocytes

- Migration of T cell precursors to the thymus. Development and differentiation of T lymphocyte antigen-independent: Expression of surface markers (CD3, 4, 8). Maturation of T cells: mechanisms of positive and negative clonal selection. Production of virgin mature T cells. Migration to secondary lymphoid organs. Activation of mature T cells by antigen: TCR receptor: structure and function. Receptor interactions T cell / MHC-specific ligand: Activation of T lymphocytes proliferation of mature T lymphocytes. Differentiation into effector T lymphocytes. Subpopulations of effector T lymphocytes: cytotoxic T: CD8). T helper cells (Helper: CD4): Role of Th1 and Th2 subclasses. Production of T cell memory.

Topic 14. The immune response. - Concept. Action mechanisms. Response types. Cellular Immune Response: characteristics of cellular cooperation. The influence of the antigen and of the microenvironment. The effector cells involved. Humoral immune response: Characteristics. Phases of activation, proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes. Primary immune response. Immunological memory. Secondary immune response


Topic 15. Immune Tolerance.

- Concept of immune tolerance. General properties. Mechanisms of immunological tolerance. Central and peripheral tolerance of T and B cels . Mechanisms of induction of tolerance: Delección clonal, anergia clonal. Immunological ignorance. Supresors/regulatory T cells. Cell-cell interactions: help and suppression. Tolerance to the own and foreign antigens.
Program of practical classes - Practices to develop in the (INIBIC) laboratory

Practice 1

- Protocol for the extraction of the distinct populations of blood cells in the peripheral blood.
* Separation of leucocytes by gradient of density with Histopaque.
* Obtaining of mononuclears cells of the peripheral blood (lymphocytes and monocytes).
* Obtaining of granulocytes.
* Obtaining of platelets.

Practice 2

- Flow Cytometry: antigénic determination of immune cells: Isolation of T lymphocytes by Sorter.

Practice 3

- ELISA (Essay by inmunoabsorción tied to enzymes: detection of specific antibodies or of soluble cytokines in serums).

Practice 4.

- Immunohistochemistry: Identification of antigenic markers on frozen or paraffin-embedded tissue by fluorescence techniques or enzyme samples.
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