Teaching GuideTerm
Faculty of Science
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Grao en Química
  Biochemistry and Biological Chemistry
Topic Sub-topic
1.- Biomolecules. Structure, characteristics and chemical reactivity Structure of biomolecules: Configuration and conformation. Isomerism: Concept and types. Carbohydrates: Nomenclature and structure; classification and importance. Lipids: Concept, classification and importance; Nomenclature and structure. Properties of proteins in solution. Parameters characterizing a protein and techniques for determination. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure. Fibrous and globular proteins. Folding. Conformers in the spatial organization of nucleic acids. Parameters characterizing a nucleic acid and determination. De-naturation and re-naturation. Biochemical techniques used for the isolation and purification of biomolecules.
2.-Genetic information Replication and transcription of DNA: DNA and RNA biosynthesis. Protein translation: genetic code and protein metabolism.
3.-Structure and function of macromolecules and biological membranes. The interaction of proteins with ligands and conformational changes. The concept of cooperativity and models. Conjugated proteins: Union to metals, to prosthetic groups, to glycids, to lipids. Interactions between nucleic acids and proteins. Structure and properties of the membranes.
4.-Catalysis and control of biochemical reactions. Enzyme purification. Purification parameters and tables. Units of enzymatic activity. The methods to measure EU. Coupled- Assays. Catalysis as a model of the enzyme-substrate interaction. Catalytic centers. Specificity. Coenzymes and their involvement in catalysis. The concept of enzymatic regulation. Models. Allosterism. Isoenzymes. Multienzyme complexes. The kinetics of enzymatic reactions. Calculation of kinetic parameters in mono and bi-substrate reactions. Kinetics in the presence of inhibitors. Inhibition constants calculation. The kinetics of allosteric enzymes.
5 - The role of metals in biological systems Iron in biological molecules: heme group and siro-heme, Fe-S and Fe-SO centers. Transport and storage of Fe: Transferrin and Ferritin. Siderophores. The copper in biological systems: Structure of different types of complexes with Cu and containing proteins. Other complexes with trace elements. Metal toxicity. Metals in medicine.
6.-Bio-energetics Systems of energy transfer between the reactions. Exchange systems of phosphate groups; systems based on the use of co-enzyme and re-dox reactions. The problems associated with cellular compartments: shuttle systems.
7.- Metabolism. Introduction to Metabolism. Metabolic pathways of degradation. Metabolic pathways of biosynthesis. Peculiarities of chemical reactions in biological systems. Interaction and regulation of biological reactions. Case studies of interpretation of reactions in metabolic pathways. Glycolysis, TCA cycle. Fermentations. Pentose Phosphate pathway. Glioxalate cicle. Beta-oxidation. Biosynthesis of Palmitoleic acid. Urea cycle.
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