Teaching GuideTerm
Faculty of Science
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Grao en Nanociencia e Nanotecnoloxía
  Chemistry: Equilibrium and Change
Topic Sub-topic
1. Thermochemistry. Introduction to Thermodynamics. Thermochemistry. Heat, work and internal energy. First Principle of Thermodynamics. Heat of reaction at constant volume and constant pressure. Concept of enthalpy. Standard enthalpy of formation. Calorimetry: measurement of heat of reaction. Hess's law. Bond enthalpy and reaction enthalpy. Nanoscience applications.
2. Spontaneity and Equilibrium. Second Principle of Thermodynamics. Concept of entropy. Gibbs free energy. Spontaneity. Concept of chemical equilibrium and the constants of equilibrium. The reaction quotient Q. Modifications of the conditions of equilibrium: principle of Le Châtelie. Relationship between Gibbs energy and equilibrium constant. Prediction of chemical change. Temperature dependence. Nanoscience applications
3. Acid-Base Equilibrium Review of Arrhenius' theory. Bronsted-Lowry theory. Self-ionization of water and pH scale. Strength of acids and bases. Polyprotic acids. Ions as acids and bases. Lewis acids and bases. Common ion effect. Regulatory solutions. Indicators. Neutralization reactions and titration curves. Nanoscience applications.
4. Equilibrium of complex formation. General considerations. Types of ligands. Constants of formation and dissociation. Acid-base reactions of complex ions. Nanoscience applications.
5. Solubility Equilibrium Solubility and solubility product. Common ion effect. Total and fractional precipitation. Factors that influence the solubility of salts: common ion effect, saline effect, pH and complex formation. Nanoscience applications.
6. Adsorption-Desorption Equilibrium. Adsorption. Desorption. Adsorption-desorption balance. Langmuir model.
7. Electrochemistry. Basic concepts: redox reactions. Electrode potential and standard electrode potential. Relationship between potential, Gibbs free energy and constant of equilibrium. Energy variation with concentration: Nernst equation. Mixed equilibria: influence of other equilibria. Batteries and cells. Corrosion. Electrolysis.
8. Introduction to Chemical Kinetics. Reaction rates and temperature. Measurement of reaction rates. Rate equation, order reaction, molecularity. Relationship between kinetics and equilibrium. Influence of temperature: Arrhenius equation. Collision theory. Transition state theory. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Nanoscience applications.
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