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Faculty of Science
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  General Chemistry 1
Topic Sub-topic
1.- Introduction
Matter and chemistry. Models. The scientific-experimental method. Composition of matter. Properties of matter
2.- Formulation and nomenclature Formulation. Nomenclature
3.- The structure of matter and particle models Matter as set nucleus and electrons. Rutherford atomic model. Bohr atomic model for the hydrogen atom. Limitations of the Bohr atomic model. Uncertainty Principle
4.- The wave mechanical model for the hydrogen atom De Broglie's hypothesis. Stationary wave equation for Hydrogenoid System. Orbital functions. Orthonormality solutions to the equation and quantum numbers n, l ml. Electron energy Hydrogenoid System. Meaning of "Orbital Function". Comparison between models of Bohr and Schrödinger. The wave functions. Graphical representation of the orbitals
5.- The wave mechanical model for polielectronic atoms The wave equation for an atom with more electrons. Orbital model approach. Determination of the effective nuclear charge. Slater rules. The energy of the orbitals of the electron atoms. The electron spin quantum number. The Pauli exclusion principle. Electronic configurations
6.- Periodic Table and periodic properties of the elements Electronic configuration and periodic table. Periodicity of atomic properties
7.- Introduction to bonding models The wave equation for polynuclear systems. Models bond between atoms. Link models adapted to the types of chemicals
8.- Lewis Theory Structure and properties of molecular substances. Lewis model. Bond order and bond strength and longitude. Resonance. Molecules that do not meet the octet rule. Limitations of the theory of Lewis
9.- Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory The theory of pair repulsion electron valence shell. Application of the model. Application of the model species with more than one central atom
10.- Valence Bond Theory VTE in diatomic molecules. The model of "Electronic Cement". The valence bond model. Orbital hybridization. Resonance. Polar covalent bonds. The polarity of the bond in the VTE. Polar covalent bond strength
11.- Intermolecular Forces The absolute temperature scale. Solids, liquids and gases. Van der Waals force. Hydrogen bonds
12.- Covalent Solids Covalent solids. Some solid covalent structures
13.- Structure and bonding in metals Metals: Property characteristics. Structure of Metals. Electronic Cement. The metallic bond: electron sea model
14.- Structure and bonding in salts Definition and properties of salts. Structure salts. Ionic radii. A "Rule radios". Ionic bonding model. Calculation of the laticce energy. Covalent character of the bond in the salts. Electron density maps. Polarizing power and polarizability of the ions. Fajans rules. Consequences of participation in the covalent bond
15.- Molecular Orbital Theory Limitations of VTE. Again the wave equation for polynuclear systems. OM diagram H2 species. OM diagram of He2 + and He2 species. Binding order in the TOM. OM of other diatomic molecules. The "orbital investment." OM for the molecule BeH2, an example of polyatomic molecule. Molecular orbitals of polar species. Delocalized systems. Treatment of the electronic structure of metals by TOM: Bands model. The pattern of bands applied to covalent solids. Treating the salts by MOM
16.- The atomic nucleus The atomic nucleus. Protons and neutrons. Radioactive decay reactions. Beta- particle emission. + Beta particle emission. Electron capture. Emission of alpha particles. Gagma emission radiation. Half-life. Nuclear fission. Nucleosynthesis. Nuclear energy. The Re
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