|1.- Biomolecules. Structure, characteristics and chemical reactivity
||Structure of biomolecules: Configuration and conformation. Isomerism: Concept and types. Carbohydrates: Nomenclature and structure; classification and importance. Lipids: Concept, classification and importance; Nomenclature and structure. Properties of proteins in solution. Parameters characterizing a protein and techniques for determination. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure. Fibrous and globular proteins. Folding. Conformers in the spatial organization of nucleic acids. Parameters characterizing a nucleic acid and determination. De-naturation and re-naturation. Biochemical techniques used for the isolation and purification of biomolecules.
||Replication and transcription of DNA: DNA and RNA biosynthesis. Protein translation: genetic code and protein metabolism.
|3.-Structure and function of macromolecules and biological membranes.
||The interaction of proteins with ligands and conformational changes. The concept of cooperativity and models. Conjugated proteins: Union to metals, to prosthetic groups, to glycids, to lipids. Interactions between nucleic acids and proteins. Structure and properties of the membranes.
|4.-Catalysis and control of biochemical reactions.
||Enzyme purification. Purification parameters and tables. Units of enzymatic activity. The methods to measure EU. Coupled- Assays. Catalysis as a model of the enzyme-substrate interaction. Catalytic centers. Specificity. Coenzymes and their involvement in catalysis. The concept of enzymatic regulation. Models. Allosterism. Isoenzymes. Multienzyme complexes. The kinetics of enzymatic reactions. Calculation of kinetic parameters in mono and bi-substrate reactions. Kinetics in the presence of inhibitors. Inhibition constants calculation. The kinetics of allosteric enzymes.
||Systems of energy transfer between the reactions. Exchange systems of phosphate groups; systems based on the use of co-enzyme and re-dox reactions. The problems associated with cellular compartments: shuttle systems.